Obsidian is a molten stone with a glassy structure that is created during the quick cooling of volcanic lava. It is commonly dull green, brown, or black, however, a few stones are almost colorless and others have interesting examples and shades of color.
Individuals of early societies utilized obsidian to deliver weapons, devices, mirrors, and beautifying objects. It is presently utilized for manufacturing careful surgical tool edges, as the cutting edge edges can be made to move toward sub-atomic thinness. Furthermore, the stone continues to be utilized for elaborate purposes and as a gemstone.
Formation And Occurrence
Obsidian is created from volcanoes when felsic lava cools and freezes without adequate time for crystal development. It is ordinarily found in areas where the cooling of lava was fast, for example, at the margins of the lava streams and in places where the lava entered a lake or ocean. This stone can be classified as an “extrusive” molten stone.
This glassy stone is metastable—after some time, it turns out to be fine-grained, mineral crystals. The breakdown of obsidian is quickened by the presence of water. Therefore, no obsidian has been discovered that is more established than the Cretaceous age. Tektites were once thought by numerous individuals to be obsidian created by lunar volcanic emissions, yet barely any researchers as of now underwrite this speculation.
Appearance Of The Gemstone
Obsidian comprises mainly silicon dioxide, normally 70% or more. Its structure is fundamentally the same as that of rock and rhyolite. It is moderately delicate, with a run of the mill hardness of 5 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale. Its general thickness is roughly 2.6. Like some other kind of glass and some different sorts of naturally occurring rocks, it breaks with a trademark conchoidal crack.
Somehow or another, obsidian takes after quartz due to their comparative synthetic cosmetics. Quartz, however, is crystalline, and a few of its properties accordingly differ from those of obsidian.
Unadulterated obsidian is normally dim in appearance or you can say it is black obsidian, yet the color differs depending on the presence of debasements. The presence of iron and magnesium normally gives the material a dull green or brown or black color.
How Is It Used Presently?
Obsidian is utilized in heart medical procedure, as well-made obsidian edges have a cutting edge up to multiple times sharper than top-notch steel careful surgical tools, with the edge reaching genuine atomic thinness. It creates a cleaner cut and less tissue injury, which means faster healing and less scar tissue.
This stone is additionally utilized for fancy purposes and as a gemstone, for it has the curious property of presenting a different appearance according to the way wherein it is cut. At the point when cut one way it is a beautiful dark black; when cut over another bearing it is glistening dim.
How Is It Used In The Past?
Obsidian was exceptionally esteemed in certain Stone Age societies since, like flint, it could be fractured to create sharp cutting edges or pointed stones. It was additionally cleaned to make early mirrors.
Pre-Columbian Mesoamericans utilized obsidian widely. For instance, they cut and worked obsidian for devices and beautiful items. The antiquated Mesoamericans additionally made a sort of sword with obsidian edges mounted in a wooden body. Called a macuahuitl, the weapon was fit for inflicting awful injuries, combining the sharp cutting edge of an obsidian edge with the worn-out cut of a serrated weapon that brought dread.